Local combats global: simulacrum of brand personality for tea brands
Brand Personality is the simulacrum of human traits used to describe the personality of brands. In the arena of marketing, firms are struggling hard to impinge their brand image as a person in the minds of its customers. The idea behind is that when a customer perceives its favorite brand as a personality, it will develop certain associations and belongingness for that brand. Customers more affinity to personality of brand leads towards more loyalty and ultimately fruitful for the generic firm who introduced the brand and brand personality for its product. The study empirically assesses the impact of brand personality in the mind of customers for two famous tea brands of Pakistan. Both brands have nearly equal share in the market but one is local and other is global. The data was collected from the territory of Islamabad, Pakistan by taking the sample of 436 in total. By employing the area sampling, data was equally divided into two equal halves of 218 samples respectively. First half of the respondents were the user of local tea brand while the second half of the respondents were the user of global tea brand. Aaker scale of brand personality was employed to measure the personality of tea brands. An independent sample t test was utilized to check the customers differentiation. It was observed that customers perceived the both brands as more rugged and sincere. These characteristics are important and relevant for any tea brand to be successful in the market. That why, both brands are sharing almost equal share in the market. However, global tea brand is perceived more sophisticated, competent and with full of excitement as compared to local brand. At the moment, the disparity of these personality characteristics are not affecting the market share of local brand but it is urged that for long lasting and sustainability competition, the local brand should also focus on the dimensions of brand personality of sophistication, competence and excitement.
Aaker, J. L. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of marketing research, 34(3), 347-356.
Ahluwalia, R., Stilley, K., & Swaminathan, V. (2009). When brand personality matters: the moderating role of attachment style. J. Consum. Res, 35, 985-1002.
Akin, M. (2011). Predicting consumers' behavioral intentions with perceptions of brand personality: A study in cell phone markets. International Journal of Business and Management, 6(6), 193.
Alt, M., & Griggs, S. (1988). Can a brand be cheeky? Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 6(4), 9-16.
Álvarez-Ortiz, C., & Harris, J. (2002). Assessing the structure of brand personality among global and local Mexican brands. AMA Summer Educator's Proceedings: Enhancing Knowledge Development in Marketing, 13, 263-264.
Armor, D. J. (1973). Theta reliability and factor scaling. Sociological methodology, 5, 17-50.
Avis, M. (2012). Brand personality factor based models: A critical review. Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), 20(1), 89-96.
Banahene, S. (2017). The impact of brand personality and students’ self-concept on brand engagement. International Journal of Business and Social Research, 7(8), 12-25.
Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: a meta‐analysis. Personnel psychology, 44(1), 1-26.
Bonett, D. G., & Wright, T. A. (2015). Cronbach's alpha reliability: Interval estimation, hypothesis testing, and sample size planning. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(1), 3-15.
Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., & Guido, G. (2001). Brand personality: How to make the metaphor fit? Journal of economic psychology, 22(3), 377-395.
Carlson, B. D., & Donavan, D. T. (2013). Human brands in sport: Athlete brand personality and identification. Journal of Sport Management, 27(3), 193-206.
Colucci, M., Montaguti, E., & Lago, U. (2008). Managing brand extension via licensing: An investigation into the high-end fashion industry. International journal of research in marketing, 25(2), 129-137.
Cortina, J. M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of applied psychology, 78(1), 98.
Das, G., Datta, B., & Guin, K. K. (2012). From brands in general to retail brands: A review and future agenda for brand personality measurement. The Marketing Review, 12(1), 91-106.
Duboff, R. S. (1986). Brands, like people, have personalities. Marketing News, 20(1), 8.
Durgee, J. F., & Stuart, R. W. (1987). Advertising symbols and brand names that best represent key product meanings. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 4(3), 15-24.
Fionda, A. M., & Moore, C. M. (2009). The anatomy of the luxury fashion brand. Journal of brand Management, 16(5-6), 347-363.
Flint, J. (1988). A brand is like a friend. Forbes, Nov, 14(142), 11.
Freling, T. H., & Forbes, L. P. (2005). An examination of brand personality through methodological triangulation. Journal of brand Management, 13(2), 148-162.
George, J., & Anandkumar, V. (2018). Dimensions of Product Brand Personality. Vision, 22(4), 377-386.
Geuens, M., Weijters, B., & De Wulf, K. (2009). A new measure of brand personality. International journal of research in marketing, 26(2), 97-107.
Gliem, J. A., & Gliem, R. R. (2003). Calculating, interpreting, and reporting Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient for Likert-type scales.
Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative" description of personality": the big-five factor structure. Journal of personality and social psychology, 59(6), 1216.
Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P. J., & Swann Jr, W. B. (2003). A very brief measure of the Big-Five personality domains. Journal of Research in personality, 37(6), 504-528.
Guido, G., & Peluso, A. M. (2015). Brand anthropomorphism: Conceptualization, measurement, and impact on brand personality and loyalty. Journal of brand Management, 22(1), 1-19.
Heine, K. (2009). Using personal and online repertory grid methods for the development of a luxury brand personality. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 7(1).
Hosany, S., Ekinci, Y., & Uysal, M. (2006). Destination image and destination personality: An application of branding theories to tourism places. Journal of Business research, 59(5), 638-642.
Kim, C. K., Han, D., & Park, S. B. (2001). The effect of brand personality and brand identification on brand loyalty: Applying the theory of social identification. Japanese psychological research, 43(4), 195-206.
Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and psychological measurement, 30(3), 607-610.
Lin, L.-Y. (2010). The relationship of consumer personality trait, brand personality and brand loyalty: an empirical study of toys and video games buyers. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 19(1), 4-17.
Louis, D., & Lombart, C. (2010). Impact of brand personality on three major relational consequences (trust, attachment, and commitment to the brand). Journal of Product & Brand Management, 19(2), 114-130.
Luffarelli, J., Stamatogiannakis, A., & Yang, H. (2019). The visual asymmetry effect: An interplay of logo design and brand personality on brand equity. Journal of marketing research, 56(1), 89-103.
Madden, T. J., Fehle, F., & Fournier, S. (2006). Brands matter: An empirical demonstration of the creation of shareholder value through branding. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(2), 224-235.
Maehle, N., Otnes, C., & Supphellen, M. (2011). Consumers' perceptions of the dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Consumer behaviour, 10(5), 290-303.
Malär, L., Krohmer, H., Hoyer, W. D., & Nyffenegger, B. (2011). Emotional brand attachment and brand personality: The relative importance of the actual and the ideal self. Journal of marketing, 75(4), 35-52.
McCrae, R. R., & John, O. P. (1992). An introduction to the five‐factor model and its applications. Journal of personality, 60(2), 175-215.
Milas, G., & Mlačić, B. (2007). Brand personality and human personality: Findings from ratings of familiar Croatian brands. Journal of Business research, 60(6), 620-626.
Mishra, M., & Mohanty, S. (2013). Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility Communication on Corporate Brand Personality Assessment. IUP Journal of Management Research, 12(4).
Molinillo, S., Japutra, A., Nguyen, B., & Chen, C.-H. S. (2017). Responsible brands vs active brands? An examination of brand personality on brand awareness, brand trust, and brand loyalty. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 35(2), 166-179.
Müller, R.-A. (2014). Perceived brand personality of symbolic brands. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 6(7), 532-541.
Novick, M. R., & Lewis, C. (1967). Coefficient alpha and the reliability of composite measurements. Psychometrika, 32(1), 1-13.
Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. (2018). Block Wise Provisional Summary Results of 6th Population & Housing Census-2017. Islamabad, Pakistan: Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.
Park, C. W., Jaworski, B. J., & MacInnis, D. J. (1986). Strategic brand concept-image management. Journal of marketing, 50(4), 135-145.
Plummer, J. T. (2000). How personality makes a difference. Journal of advertising research, 40(6), 79-83.
Santos, J. R. A. (1999). Cronbach’s alpha: A tool for assessing the reliability of scales. Journal of extension, 37(2), 1-5.
Sijtsma, K. (2009). On the use, the misuse, and the very limited usefulness of Cronbach’s alpha. Psychometrika, 74(1), 107.
Singh, D. (2013). The brand personality component of brand goodwill: some antecedents and consequences. Brand equity & advertising: Advertising's role in building strong brands, 83-96.
Smothers, N. (1993). Can products and brands have charisma. Brand equity and advertising: Advertising's role in building strong brands, 97-112.
Tong, X., Su, J., & Xu, Y. (2018). Brand personality and its impact on brand trust and brand commitment: an empirical study of luxury fashion brands. International journal of fashion design, technology and education, 11(2), 196-209.
Tsiang, S.-C. (1989). The rationale of the mean-standard deviation analysis, skewness preference, and the demand for money Finance Constraints and the Theory of Money (pp. 221-248): Elsevier.
Ulusu, Y. (2011). MARKA İMAJININ MARKA GÜVENİNE ETKİSİ EFFECTS OF BRAND IMAGE ON BRAND TRUST. Journal of Yasar University, 24(6), 3932-3950.
United Nations. (2018). World Urbanization Prospects 2018. New York, USA: DESA/Population Division, United Nations.
Van Rekom, J., Jacobs, G., & Verlegh, P. W. (2006). Measuring and managing the essence of a brand personality. Marketing Letters, 17(3), 181-192.
Zhou, Z., Zhang, Q., Su, C., & Zhou, N. (2012). How do brand communities generate brand relationships? Intermediate mechanisms. Journal of Business research, 65(7), 890-895.